Book Review Analysis Recommendation The History of Greece Oxford Press Professor N. G. L. Hammond Mycenaean Bronze Age Conquests Warfare Invasions Defensive Megalithic Cyclopean Stone Rock Walls Fortifications Acropolis Athens Mycenae Pylos Tiryns Drought Climate Sea Level Change Rise Submergence Inundation of Pelasgian Cities Psathoura Elafonisos Aegean Mediterranean Sea Peoples Armada Invasion Nile Delta of New Kingdom Egypt When Why Did Underwater Cities Heraklion Canopus Menouthis Submerge by Earthquake or Sea Level Rise Iliad Odyssey Pharos Island Hellen of Troy Heroic Age Mediterranean Sea Voyages Egyptian Coast

My old college greek history textbook, The History of Greece, by N.G.L. Hammond (publisher Oxford Press), is still going strong I see, some fifty years after its original printing, a fantastically concise and detailed reportage of ancient Greece, but with one set of glaring omissions, the failure or lack of knowledge to have mentioned the submerged bronze age ruins at many locations off Greece, such as the stone block ruins of buildings of a city twenty- two acres in area submerged off the western coast off Elafonisos Island (sixty miles northwest of Crete), and the ruins of another big bronze age city off Psathoura Island in the Sporades, about a hundred miles east of Athens.

Professor Hammond, having written his classic tome back in the 1950’s, may well have been unaware of the submerged ruins off Greece in so many locations, such also as the ruins off Plytra, Abdera, Platygiali, Samothrace, and Astakos, but had he been aware of these, plus the fact that the rainfall amounts in Greece dropped drastically at the same time the sea level rose to consume those cities, he then would have known why the Mediterranean countries, as he so well documents, went into virtual anarchy beginning circa 1400 B.C., with invasions for food and water, having caused kings to construct massive fortifications such as at Mycenae and Tiryns in Greece, and the Sea Peoples (displaced by the sea level rise) eventually having invaded even Egypt circa 1200 B.C., taking and keeping the Nile Delta from pharoahs, adding to the decline of that once great nation.

Submerged off the Nile Delta in the Mediterranean are the impressively extensive ruins of Heraklion, Menouthis, and Canopus, submerged on the paleo channel of the now extinct most western branch of the Nile delta, the Canopic branch, submerged since at least the time of the Odyssey (circa 1200 B.C.), described by Homer, when Helen of Troy voyaged to Pharos Island, just off Alexandria (which wasn’t built ’til about a thousand years later), making no mention of the huge cities which should have been there, but had been in reality submerged for about two hundred years, the sea level having risen to cause what had been a coastal hill to become Pharos Island.

Mainstream ancient egyptian experts are saying Menouthis, Heraklion, and Canopus went under because of earthquakes and the resultant supposed slippage of the megalithic ruins, five miles out to sea, in that flat coastal environment, the only lame reason they can dream up, anything but stating the obvious, that those cities, as well as, the rest of the submerged bronze age ruins found in hundreds of locations around the world, went under only because the sea level rose prodigiously, much later than the mainstream experts are currently willing to admit, when the Ice Age ended.

Some of the experts say Heraklion, Menouthis, and Canopus slid out to sea on an earthqake induced sediment ride circa 800 A.D, but if so, why is not the event mentioned in arabic/islamic oral traditions or written histories?  And if those now submerged coastal cities were functioning there circa 350 B.C., then why did Alexander the Great build his port city, Alexandria, just a few miles away, and why is their no mention of those cities in the literature from that time?

The coastline of Egypt at Alexander’s time (and today) was where it was when Helen of Troy sailed to Pharos Island almost a thousand years previously, with the three now submerged cities obviously then too submerged, since circa 1500 B.C., or shortly thereafter, when the Ice Age was ending, for sea level rise a few hundred feet to cover vast tracts of coastal bronze age real estate, much of it surveyed no doubt by the same method used the calculate the dimensions for the Great Pyramid of Giza, see the explanation in article #2 at

And certainly see

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