When Alexander the Great had conquered the kingdoms of the upper tributaries of the Indus river, in the foothills of the western Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains, not wanting to face the armies of the kings of the Ganges river, to the east, he instead headed southwest along the lower Indus, which empties into the Arabian Sea, because his army was ready to return to Greece. He met little resistance along the lower Indus, because it ran through a desert, the Great Indian Desert, but Alexander’s recon man, Aristoboulos, returned from an extensive survey of the desert, reporting “an abandoned country with over a thousand towns and villages left after the Indus changed its course.”
But the Indus has never changed its course, and along it, and its tributaries (many of which have long ago dried up), have been discovered ruins of hundreds of Harappan Civilization towns and cities, including Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, built of brick, multi-story brick buildings, temples, granaries, plumbing, very advanced, with the other smaller population centers not that elaborate, as it is today comparing big cities’ buildings with those of small towns, so the other abandoned towns to which Aristoboulos referred, to the east, had been along the Saraswati River, which by Alexander’s time, had been extinct (it was a massive river as described in the Rig Veda) for about a thousand years.
The Sarasvatie rive began to die when the Shivalik Hills rose up to divert two of the Saraswati’s main upper tributaries, the Satluj river, diverted to the upper Indus basin, and the Yamuna river, diverted to the upper Ganges basin, and those Shivalik Hills having risen because of isostatic readjustment of the earth’s crust with the end of the Ice Age, when sea level rose a few hundred feet to submerge Rama (Harappan) empire cities in the gulfs of Kutch and Khambat, where the mighty Saraswati River flowed into the sea during the Ice Age.
This scenario comports with the vedic literature that the sea level rose in ancient times, to consume entire coastal plains and their cities, circa 1500 B.C., when the Ice Age actually ended, and so, by the time Alexander the Great had come to the Great Indian Desert, it was a parched wasteland, where but just over a thousand years previously, it had been a lush land of pastures and forests, with diverse wildlife, in the time of the patriarchs of that region, Kush, Ramah, and Shiva, as well as, Kham, Ham, hence the gulf of Khambat.
And to learn how those ancient navigators of the Rama Empire measured and mapped the earth by its wobble rate, refer to article #2 at http://IceAgeCivilizations.com, showing the link of the hindu yugas of time to the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, the land of Khemet, Khem, Kham, Ham.
See too http://genesisveracityfoundation.com.